Loss of control Accident CASA/Nurtanio NC-212-A4 Aviocar 100 PK-ZAI, Saturday 12 February 2011
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Date:Saturday 12 February 2011
Type:Silhouette image of generic C212 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different    
CASA/Nurtanio NC-212-A4 Aviocar 100
Owner/operator:Sabang Merauke Raya Air Charter
Registration: PK-ZAI
MSN: 120/18N
Year of manufacture:1980
Total airframe hrs:29990 hours
Cycles:35128 flights
Engine model:Garrett TPE331-5-251C
Fatalities:Fatalities: 5 / Occupants: 5
Other fatalities:0
Aircraft damage: Destroyed, written off
Location:ca 15 km N of Tanjung Pinang-Kidjang Airport (TNJ), Bintan Island -   Indonesia
Phase: En route
Departure airport:Batam-Hang Nadim Airport (BTH/WIDD)
Destination airport:Tanjung Pinang-Kidjang Airport (TNJ/WIDN)
Investigating agency: NTSC
Confidence Rating: Accident investigation report completed and information captured
A CASA/Nurtanio NC-212-A4 Aviocar 100 plane, registered PK-ZAI, was damaged beyond repair in an accident at Bintan Island, Indonesia. All five on board were killed.
The airplane departed from Batam-Hang Nadim Airport (BTH) at 13:18 for a test flight following an engine replacement to the engine number one. The test flight was conducted over Bintan (Tanjung Pinang) Island area. There were five persons on board consisted of two pilots, and three company engineers.
The flight climbed to the en route cruising altitude of 4000 feet, heading for Tanjung Pinang-Kidjang Airport (TNJ).
The airplane crashed nose down in the jungle at the 010 radial of the TPG VOR at a distance of about 15 NM from the VOR.

Factors contributed to the accident are as follows:
- The flight test was not properly well prepared; there was no flight test plan.
- The current and applicable CMM is dissimilar the According to the CASA 212-100 and Garrett TPE331-5 Maintenance Manuals related to flight test requirement after the change of only one engine.
- The left engine was shut down using normal/ ground shut down procedure. It used the fuel shut off switches off followed by pulling the Power Lever rearward to reverse, as indicated by the propeller pitch.
- The right engine most likely shut down by wind milling prior the impact, it was indicated the propellers piston distance position to the cylinder was about normal flight range position and no indication of rotating impact on the blades.
- The Casa Service Bulletin No. 212-76-07 Revision 1 issued dated 23 December 1991 (Anti Reverse) that applicable for Casa 212 -100/200, was not incorporated to this aircraft.
- The PIC with pareses or paralysis vestibular organ or system could not response normally to the three dimensional motion or movement. This condition may the subject more sensitive to suffer Spatial Disorientation (SDO). The SDO is the pilot could not perceived rightly his position motion and attitude to the earth horizontal or to his aircraft or other aircraft and could as the dangerous precondition for unsafe action.
- The Director (DGCA) decree No 30/II/2009 issued on 20 February 2009 stated that for issuing medical certificate for pilot after 60th birthday require several additional medical examination items. Point 1.b of this decree states the Video Nystagmography examination.(differed the ICAO Doc 8984)

Accident investigation:
Investigating agency: NTSC
Report number: KNKT.
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 1 year and 9 months
Download report: Final report


Ministry of Transportation

History of this aircraft

Other occurrences involving this aircraft

11 April 2002 PK-ZAI Sabang Merauke Raya Air Charter 0 Sabang-Maimun Saleh Airport (SBG) min
30 November 2005 PK-ZAI Sabang Merauke Raya Air Charter 0 Sinabang-Lasikin Airport min
Runway excursion



photo (c) NTSC; near Tanjung Pinang; February 2011

photo (c) NTSC; near Tanjung Pinang; February 2011

Revision history:


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